Minerals are essential ingredients of advanced economies such as Finland, providing the raw materials for technological advances and products that sustain growth. The whole value chain from mineral exploration to effective recycling forms a sustainable circular economy. Primary and secondary resources should be considered as one combined system. The transition from a linear, primary material dominated to a circular, secondary material dominated economy for most critical raw materials in energy transition will take decades.
Learn more from the science and innovation briefing paper by Research Professors Raimo Lahtinen, Ferenc Molnár & Pertti Sarala.