A novel bottom-up approach (as opposed to the typical top-down approach) was used to make the calculations presented in the report. Previous studies have also tended to focus on estimated costs of production and CO2 footprint metrics, whereas the present report is based on the physical material requirements. All data, figures and diagrams have been created or reproduced from publicly available sources and are cited appropriately.

The research report made by Associate Research Professor Simon Michaux from Geological Survey of Finland GTK.

You can download the report and the related materials below:

Further information

Simon P. Michaux
, Associate Professor
Tel. +358 29 503 2158

Aku Heinonen, Director, Science and Innovations
Tel. +358 29 503 0109