Fennoscandian Mineral Deposits application, Ore Deposits database and Maps

Note! As of February 24, 2022, the data update regarding Russia has been suspended for the time being.
Huom! Tietojen päivitys Venäjän osalta on keskeytetty toistaiseksi
24.2.2022 alkaen.

Essential information on a still under-explored region

The Fennoscandian Metallogenic Map and its explanation book indicate and describe areas of metal deposits and probable future metal ore discoveries in the Fennoscandian Shield.

The Fennoscandian Ore Deposit Database (FODD) is a comprehensive numeric database on metallic mines, deposits and significant occurrences in Fennoscandia.

Click Fennoscandian Mineral Deposits Web Map to view detailed information on the deposits and their relationship to lithology and geophysical information.

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The maps and the database have been compiled in a joint project between the geological surveys of Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden. The database contains information on nearly 1700 mines, deposits and significant occurrences across the region. By country, there is information on:

  • 376 deposits in Finland
  • 240 deposits in Norway
  • 250 deposits in Russia
  • 856 deposits in Sweden

The metallogenic map contains 168 major metallogenic areas. Of these 46 are completely or mostly in Finland, 40 in Norway, 41 in Russia, and 41 in Sweden; these include 24 areas that cross international borders. By metal group, there are:

  • 48 areas dominated by potential on ferrous metals (Fe, Mn, Ti, V, Cr),
  • 36 on copper, zinc or lead (Cu, Zn, Pb),
  • 31 on precious metals (Ag, Au, PGE),
  • 30 on nickel or cobalt (Ni, Co),
  • 11 on metals used in modern advanced technologies (Li, PGE, REE, Ta, Zr).

Of the metal mines, 66 are active and, at least, four are in care and maintenance. In addition, there are in the metal and phosphate deposit database 13 large closed mines, 25 large unexploited deposits and 60 potentially large deposits currently not under mining. Jointly, these four deposit categories include, by their apparently most significant commodity: 31 Ni, 25 Fe, 24 Au, 21 V, 17 REE, 13 Cr, 9 Cu, 7 PGE, 7 U, 6 Zn, 4 Be, 3 Nb, 3 Ti, 3 phosphate, 1 Ag, and 1 Pb deposit. The size ranks are based on the relative value (average metal prices during 2009-2018) of the in situ commodity contents. Naturally, a large majority of these also contain other extractable commodities in significant volumes. For example, nine of the REE-dominated deposits also are major phosphate, all the Ni deposits are major cobalt and medium-sized copper, almost all Cu deposits are major to medium sized zinc, all Zn deposit are medium-sized copper, and all Be deposits are significant lithium resources.

The industrial mineral deposit map indicates nearly 750 mineral deposits in Fennoscandia, of which 123 are currently active mines. The number of closed mines is 291 and 330 have not been exploited at all. The deposits on the map represent 35 different mineral commodities, of which 16 are in production at present. Of the active mines and unexploited deposits, about 100 contain resources of critical minerals or minerals which contain critical metals. Of the industrial mineral deposits, there are:

  • 150 deposits in Finland
  • 166 deposits in Norway
  • 158 deposits in Russia
  • 262 deposits in Sweden

Fennoscandian industrial mineral deposits host 59 active carbonate rock, 17 quartz, 10 apatite, 10 industrial rock, 8 feldspar, 5 talc, 3 graphite or shungite, 2 spectrolite, 2 olivine, 1 mica, 1 nepheline, 1 amethyst, 1 baddelleyite, 1 wollastonite, and 1 garnet mines.

The FODD contains information on location, mining history, tonnage and commodity grades with a comment on data quality, geological setting, age, ore mineralogy, style of mineralisation, genetic models, and the primary sources of data. See the explanatory notes (540 KB) for the database. Please, note that the resource information for a deposit in the FODD is not necessarily in accordance with modern industrial standards (e.g. JORC and NI 43-101 codes), as such information only exists for some deposits recently explored or presently under exploitation. The resource calculation code has been indicated in the database for each deposit.

Information on Critical metals and minerals in Fennoscandia  is now available:

The list of critical metals and minerals is mostly based on European Commission’s Raw Materials Initiative of 2008, updated in 2014, 2017 and 2020 in which 28 economically important metals, metal groups, and minerals, that are subject to a higher risk of supply interruption are labelled as critical (e.g. REE, PGE, Co, W, Be, fluorspar, graphite etc.).

Examples of mid-2021 metal and phosphate deposit data: