Finnish Geosciences Research Laboratory

The Finnish Geosciences Research Laboratory (Suomen geotieteiden tutkimuslaboratorio, SGL) is an important international networking locus in the field geology. SGL provides an excellent environment for high-quality research. The lab develops and disseminates information on new research methods and the opportunities they present.

Founded in 2008, the lab is a large-scale joint project of GTK, Aalto University, University of Helsinki, University of Turku, University of Oulu and Åbo Akademi University. SGL’s aim is to maintain geoscience research in Finland at an international level. The laboratory also helps in the mapping of mineral potential in Finland by providing accurate rock dating and method development.

Nanotechnology research with shared equipment

At the core of the SGL cooperation are the recently installed field emission scanning electron microscope reaching nano-scale accuracy in analysing structures and the high resolution inductively coupled plasma spectrometer for detecting infinitesimal concentrations directly from specimens, as well as the laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer procured at an earlier date.

Mineralogy and particles
Field emission scanning electron microscope FE-SEM

Trace elements and geochronology
Single collector high resolution mass spectrometer SC-IPC-MS

Isotope ratios
Multi-collector mass spectrometer MC-ICP-MS

SGL Calendar (access to all SGL partners)

SGL – transferring experience-based knowledge to young researchers

One of SGL’s central goals is to assist in the professional development of a new generation of researchers by offering networking opportunities and mentoring. In the lab, young researchers can conduct research together with experienced researchers. This way, the knowledge that can be gained only via practice is transferred to the new generation and becomes a natural part of the younger researchers’ work.



Chen M., Avarmaa K., Taskinen P., Klemettinen L., Michallik R., O’Brien H., Jokilaakso, A. (2023) Novel fluxing strategy of copper matte smelting and trace metals in E-Waste recycling. Minerals Engineering, Vol. 191 

Bohm, K., Kaakinen, A., Stevens, T., Lahaye, Y., O’Brien, H., Tang, H., Shang, Y., Zhang, H., and Lu, H. 2023. Neogene global climate change and East Asian dust sources: Combined rutile geochemistry and zircon U-Pb analysis from the northern Chinese Loess Plateau. Global and Planetary Change, 221: 104049.

Thomas, R. J., Boger, S. D., Fullgraf, T., Charles, N., le Bayon, B., Frei, D., Plunder, A., Lahaye, Y., Le Roux, P., and Mumba, R. 2023. Two pulses of Mesoproterozoic intra-plate magmatism in the heart of the Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian Domain of northern Malawi. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 202: 104897.


Avarmaa, K., Strengell, D., Johto, H., Latostenmaa, P., O’Brien, H. & Taskinen, P. (2022). Solubility of Chromium in DON Smelting. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, 43 (2), 201-208.

Bohm,K., Stevens, T., Kaakinen, A., Lahaye, Y., O’Brien, H., Zhang, Z. (2022) The provenance of late Cenozoic East Asian Red Clay: Tectonic-metamorphic history of potential source regions and a novel combined zircon-rutile approach, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 225,103909, ISSN 0012-8252,

Johansson, Å., Bingen, B., Huhma, H., Waight, T., Vestergaard, R., Soesoo, A., Skridlaite, G., Krzeminska, E., Shumlyanskyy, L., Holland, M.E., Holm-Denoma, C., Teixeira, W., Faleiros, F.M., Ribeiro, B.V., Jacobs, J., Wang, C.-C., Thomas, R.B., Macey, P.M., Kirkland, C.L., Hartnady, M.I.H., Eglington, B.M., Puetz, S.J., Condie, K.C., 2022: A geochronological review of magmatism along the external margin of Columbia and in the Grenville-age orogens forming the core of Rodinia. Precambrian Research 371, 106463, 43 pp.

Klemettinen A., Klemettinen L., Michallik, R., O’Brien H., Jokilaakso, A. Time-Dependent Behavior of Waste Lithium-Ion Batteries in Secondary Copper Smelting. Batteries 8 (10) (2022). DOI: 10.3390/batteries8100190

Karinen, T., M. Moilanen, J. Kuva, Y. Lahaye, B. Datar, S. Yang (2022), Mustavaara revisited: A revised genetic model for orthomagmatic Fe–Ti–V mineralisation in the Koillismaa intrusion, Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 414, 49p.

Ikonen, J., Hendriksson, N., Luoma, S., Lahaye, Y., and Virtasalo, J. J. 2022. Behavior of Li, S and Sr isotopes in the subterranean estuary and seafloor pockmarks of the Hanko submarine groundwater discharge site in Finland, northern Baltic Sea. Applied Geochemistry, 147: 105471.

Lahtinen, R., Salminen, P.E., Sayab, M., Huhma, H., Kurhila, M., Johnston, S.T., 2022. Age and structural constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Saimaa orocline in Fennoscandia. Precambrian Research 369, 106477, 21 pp.

Liu, Y., J. Wei, J. Tan, T. Ulrich, D. Zhang, Y. Lahaye, X. Zhang, J. Chen, Sulfide micro-textures and in-situ compositions from the Wulong gold deposit, northeastern North China Craton: Implication for ore-forming processes, Ore Geology Reviews 148(2022) 105028.

Raič, S., Molnár, F., Cook, N., O’Brien, H., & Lahaye, Y. (2022). Application of lithogeochemical and pyrite trace element data for the determination of vectors to ore in the Raja Au–Co prospect, northern Finland. Solid Earth, 13, 271–299,

Rinne, T.; Klemettinen, A.; Klemettinen, L.; Ruismäki, R.; O’Brien, H.; Jokilaakso, A.; Serna-Guerrero, R. Recovering Value from End-of-Life Batteries by Integrating Froth Flotation and Pyrometallurgical Copper-Slag Cleaning. Metals 2022, 12, 15.

Vasilopoulos, M., Molnár, F., Ranta, J., & O’Brien, H. (2022). Mineralogical, lithogeochemical and sulfide trace element characteristics of the Hirvilavanmaa Au-only and the base metal-rich Naakenavaara orogenic gold deposits in the Central Lapland belt, northern Finland . Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 107132.


Al Humadi, H., Väisänen, M., Ismail, S.A., Lehtonen, M., Johanson, B. (2021). Subducted basalts and sediments as sources for felsic dykes in the Mawat Ophiolite, NE Irag. Ofioliti 46 (1), 27-41.

Avarmaa, K., Klemettinen, L., O’Brien, H., Jokilaakso, A., Lindberg, D., Taskinen, P. 2021. Solubility of Palladium in Alumina-Iron Silicate Melts. JOM (2021).

Avarmaa, K., Taskinen, P., Klemettinen, L., O’Brien, H., Lindberg, D. 2021. Ni-Fe-Co alloy magnesia-iron-silicate slag equilibria and the behavior of minor elements Cu and P in nickel slag cleaning. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 15, 719-730.

Chen, M., Avarmaa, K., Klemettinen, L., O’Brien, H., Shi, J., Lindberg, D. Jokilaakso, A. 2021. Precious Metal Distributions Between Copper Matte and Slag at High PSO2 in WEEE Reprocessing. Metall Mater Trans B 52, 871–882 (2021).

Chen, M., Avarmaa, K., Taskinen, P., Klemettinen, L., Michallik, R. O’Brien, H., Jokilaakso, A. 2021. Handling trace elements in WEEE recycling through copper smelting-an experimental and thermodynamic study. Minerals Engineering 173.

Dańczak, A., Klemettinen, L., O’Brien, H., Taskinen, P., Lindberg, D., Jokilaakso, A. 2021. Slag Chemistry and Behavior of Nickel and Tin in Black Copper Smelting with Alumina and Magnesia-Containing Slags. J. Sustain. Metall. 7, 1–14.

Hölttä, P., Mänttäri, I., Huhma, H., Kurhila, M., Ruotoistenmäki, T., Kontinen, A., 2021. Growth of the Archean sialic crust as revealed by zircon in the TTGs in Eastern Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 93, 77-104.

Lahtinen, R., Salminen, P.E., Sayab, M., Huhma, H., Kurhila, M & Johnston, S.T. Age and structural constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Saimaa orocline in Fennoscandia. Precambrian Research 369, 106477.

Liu Z-RR, Zhou M-F, Chen WT, Williams-Jones AE, Li X-D, Yin R-S, O’Brien H & Lahaye Y (2021) Mercury and sulfur isotopic evidence for the linkages between the ca. 510 Ma Kalkarindji large igneous province and trilobite crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 566,116947

Maier WD, Barnes SJ, Muir D, Savard D, Lahaye Y & Smith WD (2021) Formation of Bushveld anorthosite by reactive porous flow. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 176,3.

Raič, S., F. Molnar, N. Cook, H. O`Brien, and Y. Lahaye. 2021. Application of lithogeochemical and pyrite trace element data for the determination of vectors to ore in the Raja Au-Co prospect, northern Finland. Solid Earth Discuss. 2021:1-49.

Salin E, Sundblad K & Lahaye Y (2021) A 1.85 Ga volcanic arc offshore the proto-continent Fennoscandia in southern Sweden. Precambrian Research, 356,106134.

Tapio J, Ranta J-P, Cook N, Lahaye Y & O’Brien H (2021) Paleoproterozoic Rajapalot Au-Co system associated with evaporites: Chemical composition and boron isotope geochemistry of tourmaline, and sulfur isotopes of sulfates, Peräpohja belt, northern Finland. Precambrian Research, 365,106410.

Vasilopoulos, M, Molnár, F., O’Brien, H, Lahaye Y, Lefèbvre M, Richard A, André-Mayer A-S, Ranta J-P & Talikka M (2021) Geochemical signatures of mineralizing events in the Juomasuo Au–Co deposit, Kuusamo belt, northeastern Finland. Miner Deposita.

Wan, X., Kleemola, L., Klemettinen, L., O’Brien, H., Taskinen, P., Jokilaakso, A. (2021) On the Kinetic Behavior of Recycling Precious Metals (Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd) Through Copper Smelting Process. J. Sustain. Metall.


Avarmaa, Katri; O’Brien, Hugh; Klemettinen, Lassi; Taskinen, Pekka (2020) Precious metal recoveries in secondary copper smelting with high-alumina slags, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 22, 3, 642-655, 2020, Springer Japan

Avarmaa, Katri; Strengell, Dan; Johto, Hannu; Latostenmaa, Petri; O’Brien, Hugh; Taskinen, Pekka (2020) Solubility of Chromium in DON Smelting, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, 1-8

Bevins, Richard E; Pirrie, Duncan; Ixer, Rob A; O’Brien, Hugh; Pearson, Mike Parker; Power, Matthew R; Shail, Robin K. (2020) Constraining the provenance of the Stonehenge ‘Altar Stone’: Evidence from automated mineralogy and U–Pb zircon age dating, Journal of Archaeological Science, 120, 105188

Chen, Min; Avarmaa, Katri; Klemettinen, Lassi; O’Brien, Hugh; Sukhomlinov, Dmitry; Shi, Junjie; Taskinen, Pekka; Jokilaakso, Ari (2020) Recovery of precious metals (Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd) from urban mining through copper smelting, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 51, 1495-1508

Chopin, F., Korja, A., Nikkilä, K., Hölttä, P., Korja, T., Abdel Zaher, M., Kurhila, M., Eklund, O., Rämö,O.T. 2020. The Vaasa migmatitic complex (Svecofennian orogen, Finland): Buildup of a LP‐HT dome during Nuna assembly. Tectonics, 39, e2019TC005583. 

Dańczak, A.; Klemettinen, L.; Kurhila, M.; Taskinen, P.; Lindberg, D.; Jokilaakso, A. 2020. Behavior of Battery Metals Lithium, Cobalt, Manganese and Lanthanum in Black Copper Smelting. Batteries, 6, 16.

Dańczak, Anna; Klemettinen, Lassi; O’Brien, Hugh; Taskinen, Pekka; Lindberg, Daniel; Jokilaakso, Ari; ,Slag Chemistry and Behavior of Nickel and Tin in Black Copper Smelting with Alumina and Magnesia-Containing Slags, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy,1-14, 2020, Springer International Publishing

Finnäs V, Lill J-O, Heimbrand Y, Blass M, Saarinen T, Lahaye Y, Jokikokko E & Hägerstrand H (2020) Prevalence of stocked whitefish in River Kemijoki, Finland, inferred by micro X-ray fluorescence analysis of otoliths. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 27: 490-497.

Harazim D, Virtasalo JJ, Denommee KC, Thiemeyer N, Lahaye Y & Whitehouse MJ (2020) Exceptional sulfur and iron isotope enrichment in millimetre-sized, early Palaeozoic animal burrows. Scientific Reports, 10,20270.

Hölttä, P., Huhma, H., Lahaye, Y., Mänttäri, I., Lukkari, S., O’Brien, H. 2020. Paleoproterozoic metamorphism in the northern Fennoscandian Shield: age constraints revealed by monazite. International Geology Review, 62, 3, 360-387.

Hölttä P., Kivisaari T., Huhma H., Rollinson G., Kurhila M., Butcher, AR., 2020 Paleoproterozoic Metamorphism of the Archean Tuntsa Suite, Northern Fennoscandian Shield. Minerals,10, 1034.

Kara J, Väisänen M, Heinonen JS, Lahaye Y, O´Brien H & Huhma H (2020) Tracing arclogites in the Paleoproterozoic Era – A shift from 1.88 Ga calc-alkaline to 1.86 Ga high-Nb and adakite-like magmatism in central Fennoscandian Shield. Lithos, 372-373,105663.

Klemettinen, L., Aromaa, R., Dańczak, A., O’Brien, H., Taskinen, P., Jokilaakso, A. (2020) Distribution kinetics of rare earth elements in copper smelting. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12 (1), art. no. 208.

Klemettinen, L., Avarmaa, K., Sukhomlinov, D., O’Brien, H., Taskinen, P., Jokilaakso, A. (2020) Recycling of tellurium via copper smelting processes, SN Applied Sciences, 2, 3, 337

Kärenlampi K, Kontinen A, Hanski E, Huhma H, Lahaye Y, Krause J & Heinig T (2020) Age and origin of the Nb-Zr-REE mineralization in the Paleoproterozoic A1-type granitoids at Otanmäki, central Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 92, 39-71.

Moilanen M, Hanski E, Konnunaho J, Törmänen T, Yang S-H, Lahaye Y, O’Brien H & Illikainen J (2020) Composition of iron oxides in Archean and Paleoproterozoic mafic-ultramafic hosted Ni-Cu-PGE deposits in northern Fennoscandia: application to mineral exploration. Mineralium Deposita.

Skytta, Pietari; Maatta, Maiju; Piippo, Simo; Kara, Jaakko; Kapyaho, Asko; Heilimo, Esa; O’Brien, H. (2020) Constraints over the age of magmatism and subsequent deformation for the Neoarchean Kukkola Gneiss Complex, northern Fennoscandia, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland,

Sui, J-X., Li, J-W., Hofstra, A., O’Brien, H., Lahaye, Y., Yan, D., Li, Z-K., Jin, X-Y 2020. Genesis of the Zaozigou gold deposit, West Qinling orogen, China: constraints from sulfide trace element and stable isotope geochemistry. Ore Geology Reviews,103477.

Sukhomlinov D, Klemettinen L, Virtanen O, Lahaye Y, Latostenmaa P, Jokilaakso A & Taskinen P (2020). Trace element distributions between matte and slag in direct nickel matte smelting. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly,

Tepsell J, Ramo OT, Heinonen A, Lahaye Y, Haapala P, Halkoaho T, Heinonen JS, Hoytia H, Konnunaho J & Jarvinen V (2020) Some new insights into the geochronology of the Western Karelia Subprovince, Finnish Lapland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 92: 5-17.

Torvela, T., Kurhila, M., 2020. How does orogenic crust deform? Evidence of crustal-scale competent behaviour within the partially molten middle crust during orogenic compression. Precambrian Research, 342, 105670.


Al Humadi H, Väisänen M, Ismail S, Kara J, O’Brien H, Lahaye Y, Lehtonen M (2019) U–Pb geochronology and Hf isotope data from the Late Cretaceous Mawat ophiolite, NE Iraq”,Heliyon v5 e02721

Avarmaa, K., Klemettinen, L., O’Brien, H. & Taskinen, P. 2019. Urban mining of precious metals via oxidizing copper smelting. Miner. Eng., vol. 133: 95-102. DOI:

Avarmaa K, Klemettinen L, O’Brien H, Taskinen P, Jokilaakso A (2019) Critical Metals Ga, Ge and In: Experimental Evidence for Smelter Recovery Improvements. Minerals 9, 367, doi:10.3390/min9060367

Avarmaa K, O’Brien H, Klemettinen L, Taskinen P (2019) Precious metal recoveries in secondary copper smelting with high-alumina slags, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 1-14.

Hanski E, Huhma H, Lahaye Y, Lunkka JP, Nilsson E, Mäki T, O’Brien H, Strand K (2019) Zn-Pb-Cu sulfide-bearing glacial sandstone erratics near Raahe on the western coast of Finland: Indicators of Paleozoic base metal mineralization at the bottom of the Bothnian Bay. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 91, 143-178.

Hellstén N, Klemettinen L, Sukhomlinov D, O’Brien H, Taskinen P, Jokilaakso A, Salminen J (2019) Slag Cleaning Equilibria in Iron Silicate Slag–Copper Systems. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 1-11.

Holland K, Sukhomlinov D, Klemettinen L, Latostenmaa P, O’Brien H, Jokilaakso A, Taskinen P (2019) Distribution of Co, Fe, Ni, and precious metals between blister copper and white metal. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 1-11.

Holmqvist E, Wessman A, Mänttäri I & Lahaye Y (2019) Lead isotope and geochemical analyses of copper-based metal artefacts from the Iron Age water burial in Levänluhta, Western Finland. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 26,101854

Hölttä P, Huhma H, Lahaye Y, Mänttäri I, Lukkari S & O’Brien H (2019) Paleoproterozoic metamorphism in the northern Fennoscandian Shield: age constraints revealed by monazite. International Geology Review, 1-28.

Lill JO, Finnäs V, Heimbrand Y, Blass M, Fröjdö S, Lahaye Y, Slotte JMK, Nyman J, Jokikokko E, von Numers M & Hägerstrand H (2019) Information depths of analytical techniques assessing whitefish otolith chemistry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms.

Klemettinen, L., Avarmaa, K., O’Brien, H., Taskinen, P. & Jokilaakso, A. 2019. Behavior of Tin and Antimony in Secondary Copper Smelting Process. Minerals, vol. 9: 39-55.

Klemettinen L., Avarmaa K., O’Brien H., Jokilaakso A.,Taskinen P (2019): Control of Platinum loss in WEEE smelting. JOM: the journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 1-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11837-019-03960-4

Mäkitie H, O’Brien H, Selonen O, Kurhila M (2019) The 1.79 Ga Särkilahti leucogranite-a horizontal magma layer below granulite-grade migmatites in SE Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 91, 179-198.

Modarres, M.-H., Lahijani,H. A. K., Keshavarz, N., Lahaye, Y., Rehfeld, K., Manttari, I., Naderi-Beni, A., Ojala, A., Moradpour, M. 2019. Late Tortonian – Piacenzian multi-proxy record of Asian southwest monsoon intensification: evidence from Coastal Makran, southeast Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Patten CGC, Pitcairn IK, Alt JC, Zack T, Lahaye Y, Teagle DAH & Markdahl K (2019) Metal fluxes during magmatic degassing in the oceanic crust: sulfide mineralisation at ODP site 786B, Izu-Bonin forearc. Mineralium Deposita,

Salin E, Sundblad K, Woodard J, O’Brien H (2019) The extension of the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt into the Baltic Sea region. Precambrian Research 328, 287-308.

Sukhomlinov D, Klemettinen L, Avarmaa K, O’Brien H, Taskinen P, Jokilaakso A (2019) Distribution of Ni, Co, Precious, and Platinum Group Metals in Copper Making Process. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 1-14.

Sukhomlinov D, Klemettinen L, O’Brien H, Taskinen P, Jokilaakso A (2019) Behavior of Ga, In, Sn, and Te in Copper Matte Smelting, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B,50,6,2723-2732.

Taivalkoski, A., Sarala, P., Lahaye, Y., Lukkari, S. & Sutherland, D. 2019. Snow in mineral exploration — Examples and practices in glaciated terrain. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 200,1-12.

Wei B, Yan Wang C, Lahaye Y, Xie L & Cao Y (2019) S and C Isotope Constraints for Mantle-Derived Sulfur Source and Organic Carbon-Induced Sulfide Saturation of Magmatic Ni-Cu Sulfide Deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, North China. Economic Geology, 114,787-806.


Hellström F.A., Kumpulainen R., Jönsson C., Thomsen T.B., Huhma H. & Martinsson O. 2018. Age and lithostratigraphy of Svecofennian volcanosedimentary rocks at Masugnsbyn, northernmost Sweden – host rocks to Zn-Pb-Cu- and Cu ±Au sulphide mineralisations, pp. 151-203. In Bergman S. (Editor) Geology of the Northern Norrbotten ore province, northern Sweden, Rapporter och meddelanden 141, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, 428 pages.

Huhma, H., Hanski, E, Kontinen, A., Vuollo, J., Mänttäri, I. & Lahaye, Y. 2018. Sm–Nd and U–Pb isotope geochemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic mafic magmatism in eastern and northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 405, 150 pages, 128 figures, 1 table and 11 appendices

Hulkki, H., Taivalkoski, A., Lehtonen, M., 2018. Signatures for Cu (-Au) mineralization reflected in inorganic and heavy mineral stream sediments at Vähäkurkkio, northwestern Finland. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 188 (156-171). 

Kallio, V., Mikkola, P., Huhma, H. & Niemi, S. 2018. Suolikko Pb-Zn mineralisation and its country rocks in Muurame, Central Finland. In: Mikkola, P., Hölttä, P. & Käpyaho, A. (eds) Development of the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian orogeny: new constraints from southeast boundary of the Central Finland Granitoid Complex. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 407, 186–208. Available at:

Kara, J., M. Väisänen, Å. Johansson, Y. Lahaye, H. O’Brien, and O. Eklund, 2018. 1.90-1.88Ga arc magmatism of central Fennoscandia: geochemistry, U-Pb geochronology, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of plutonic-volcanic rocks from southern Finland. Geologica Acta, 16: 1-23.

Karimova, O.V.; Zolotarev, A.A.; Evstigneeva, T.L.; Johanson, B. Mertieite-II, Pd8Sb2.5As0.5, crystal structure refinement and formula revision. Mineralogical Magazine Vol 82 (S1), pp. S247-257.

Karlsson, T., Kauppila, P. M. & Lehtonen, M. 2018. Prediction of the long-term behaviour of extractive wastes based on environmental characterization: correspondence of laboratory prediction tests with field data. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 408, 11-26.

Karlsson, T., Kauppila, P. M. & Lehtonen, M. 2018. Potential for beneficial reuse of waste rocks from Kevitsa and Hitura mines: indicative data from lysimeter tests. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 408, 43-58.

Karlsson, T., Räisänen, M. L., Lehtonen, M., Alakangas, L. 2018. Comparison of static and mineralogical 1 ARD prediction methods in the Nordic environment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 190:719.

Karykowski, B.T., S.-H. Yang, W.D. Maier, Y. Lahaye, C.J. Lissenberg, and H. O’Brien, 2018. In situ Sr Isotope Compositions of Plagioclase from a Complete Stratigraphic Profile of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Evidence for Extensive Magma Mixing and Percolation. Journal of Petrology.

Konnunaho, J.P., E.J. Hanski, T.T. Karinen, Y. Lahaye, and H.V. Makkonen, 2018. The petrology and genesis of the Paleoproterozoic mafic intrusion-hosted Co-Cu-Ni deposit at Hietakero, NW Finnish Lapland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 90: 109-136.

Kousa, J., Huhma, H., Hokka, J. & Mikkola, P. 2018. Extension of Svecofennian 1.91 Ga magmatism to the south, results of the reanalysed age determination samples from Joroinen, central Finland. In: Mikkola, P., Hölttä, P. & Käpyaho, A. (eds) Development of the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian orogeny: new constraints from southeast boundary of the Central Finland Granitoid Complex. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 407, 56–62. Available at: 

Larkins, C., K. Turunen, I. Mänttäri, Y. Lahaye, N. Hendriksson, P. Forsman, and S. Backnäs, 2018. Characterization of selected conservative and non-conservative isotopes in mine effluent and impacted surface waters: Implications for tracer applications at the mine-site scale. Applied Geochemistry, 91: 1-13.

Luolavirta, K., E. Hanski, W. Maier, Y. Lahaye, H. O’Brien, and F. Santaguida, 2018. In situ strontium and sulfur isotope investigation of the Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide ore-bearing Kevitsa intrusion, northern Finland. Mineralium Deposita.

Lynch E.P., Hellström F-A., Huhma H., Jönberger J., Persson P-O. & Morris G.A. 2018. Geology, lithostratigraphy and petrogenesis of c. 2.14 Ga greenstones in the Nunasvaara and Masugnsbyn areas, northernmost Sweden, pp. 19-78. In Bergman S. (Editor) Geology of the Northern Norrbotten ore province, northern Sweden, Rapporter och meddelanden 141, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, 428 pages.

Mikkola, P., Huhma, H., Romu, I. & Kousa, J. 2018. Detrital zircon ages and geochemistry of the metasedimentary rocks along the southeastern boundary of the Central Finland Granitoid Complex. In: In: Mikkola, P., Hölttä, P. & Käpyaho, A. (eds) Development of the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian orogeny: new constraints from southeast boundary of the Central Finland Granitoid Complex. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 407, 28–55. Available at: 

Mikkola, P., Mönkäre, K., Ahven, M. & Huhma, H. 2018. Geochemistry and age of the Paleoproterozoic Makkola suite volcanic rocks in Central Finland. In: Mikkola, P., Hölttä, P. & Käpyaho, A. (eds) Development of the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian orogeny: new constraints from southeast boundary of the Central Finland Granitoid Complex. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 407, 85–105. Available at:

Molnar, F., A. Middleton, H. Stein, H. O’Brien, Y. Lahaye, H. Huhma, L. Pakkanen, and B. Johanson, 2018. Repeated syn- and post-orogenic gold mineralization events between 1.92 and 1.76 Ga along the Kiistala Shear Zone in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, northern Finland. Ore Geology Review. 101: 936-959.

Nenonen, V., Sammaljärvi, J., Johanson, B., Voutilainen, M., L’Hôpital, E., Dick, P., & Siitari-Kauppi, M. (2018). Porosity distribution in a heterogeneous clay-rich fault core by image processing of 14C-PMMA autoradiographs and Scanning Electron Microscopy. MRS Advances, 3 (21), 1167-1173. doi:10.1557/adv.2017.615

Qiao, J., P. Lagerkvist, I. Rodushkin, S. Salminen-Paatero, P. Roos, S. Lierhagen, K.A. Jensen, E. Engstrom, Y. Lahaye, and L. Skipperud, 2018. On the application of ICP-MS techniques for measuring uranium and plutonium: a Nordic inter-laboratory comparison exercise. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry.

Ojala, A.E.K., Mattila, J., Virtasalo, J., Kuva, J., Luoto, T.P., 2018. Seismic deformation of varved sediments in southern Fennoscandia at 7400 cal BP. Tectonophysics 744, pp. 58-71,

Piskunen, P., Avarmaa, K., O’Brien, H., Klemettinen, L., Johto, H., Taskinen, P., 2018, Precious Metal Distributions in Direct Nickel Matte Smelting with Low-Cu Mattes. Metallurgical and Materials Trans B (2018) 49: 98.

Richard, A., Banks, D.A., Hendriksson, N., and Lahaye, Y. (2018). Lithium isotopes in fluid inclusions as tracers of crustal fluids: An exploratory study. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 184, 158-166.

Shang, Y., M.A. Prins, C.J. Beets, A. Kaakinen, Y. Lahaye, N. Dijkstra, D.l.S. Rits, B. Wang, H. Zheng, and R.T. van Balen, 2018. Aeolian dust supply from the Yellow River floodplain to the Pleistocene loess deposits of the Mangshan Plateau, central China: Evidence from zircon U-Pb age spectra. Quaternary Science Review 182: 131-143.

Solismaa, S., Ismailov, A., Karhu, M., Sreenivasan, H., Lehtonen, M., Kinnunen, P., Illikainen, M., Räisänen, M.L. Valorization of Finnish mining tailings for use in the ceramics industry. Advance online publication of the Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, Volume 90 (1), 2018, pp. 33-54.

Wu, Y.-F., J.-L. Li, K. Evans, A.E. Koenig, Z.-L. Li, H. O’Brien, Y. Lahaye, K. Rempel, S.-Y. Hu, Z.-P. Zhang, and J.-P. Yu, 2018. Ore-Forming Processes of the Daqiao Epizonal Orogenic Gold Deposit, West Qinling Orogen, China: Constraints from Textures, Trace Elements, and Sulfur Isotopes of Pyrite and Marcasite, and Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Material. Economic Geology 113: 1093-1132.

Xu, J., Virolainen, S., Zhang, W., Kuva, J., Sainio, T., Koivula, R., 2018. Polyacrylonitrile-encapsulated amorphous zirconium phosphate composite adsorbent for Co, Nd and Dy separations. Chemical Engineering Journal 351, pp. 832-840 

Yang S., Maier W., Godel B., Barnes, S., Eero Hanski E., O’Brien H. (2018) Parental magma composition of the Main Zone of the Bushveld Complex: Evidence from in situ LA-ICP-MS trace element analysis of silicate minerals in the cumulate rocks, Journal of Petrology, egy115,  

Zoheir B, Emam A, Pitcairn IK, Boskabadi A, Lahaye Y & Cooper MJ (2018) Trace elements and isotope data of the Um Garayat gold deposit, Wadi Allaqi district, Egypt. Mineralium Deposita,


Avarmaa, K., O’Brien, H., Valkama, M., Klementtinen, L., Niemi, E., Taskinen, P. (2017). Properties of Na2O–SiO2 slags in Doré smelting. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review. DOI 10.1080/08827508.2017.1391246

Drake, H., J. Suksi, E.-L. Tullborg, and Y. Lahaye (2017). Quaternary redox transitions in deep crystalline rock fractures at the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Applied Geochemistry 76: 196-209.

Guice, G.L., Törmänen, T., Karykowski, B.T., Johanson, B., Lahaye, Y. (2017). Precious metal mineralisation in the Sotkavaara Intrusion, northern Finland: Peak Pt, Pd, Au and Cu offsets in a small intrusion with poorly-developed magmatic layering. Ore Geology Review 89, 701-718.

Kuva, J., Sammaljärvi, J., Parkkonen, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Lehtonen, M., Turpeinen, T., Timonen, J., Voutilainen, M. (2017) Imaging connected porosity of crystalline rock by contrast agent-aided X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy, Journal of Microscopy. DOI: 10.1111/jmi.12661.

Lahtinen, R., Huhma, H., Sipilä, P. and Vaarma, M. (2017). Geochemistry, U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd data from the Paleoproterozoic Western Finland supersuite – a key component in the coupled Bothnian oroclines. Precambrian Research 299, 264-281.

Maier, W.D., O’Brien, H., Peltonen, P., Barnes, S.-J. (2017). Platinum-group element contents of Karelian kimberlites: Implications for the PGE budget of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 216, 358-371.

Molnár, F., O’Brien, H., Stein, H., Cook, N.D.J. (2017) Geochronology of Hydrothermal Processes Leading to the Formation of the Au–U Mineralization at the Rompas Prospect, Peräpohja Belt, Northern Finland: Application of Paired U–Pb Dating of Uraninite and Re–Os Dating of Molybdenite to the Identification of Multiple Hydrothermal Events in a Metamorphic Terrane. Minerals 7, 171; doi:10.3390/min7090171.

Nikkola, P., Mänttäri, M., Rämö, T. (2017). U–Pb zircon ages of the host rocks of the Juomasuo Au–Co–Cu deposit, northeastern Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 89, 20–34

Salminen, J., Klein, R., Veikkolainen, T., Mertanen, S, and Mänttäri I. (2017). Mesoproterozoic geomagnetic reversal asymmetry in light of new paleomagnetic and geochronological data for the Häme dyke swarm, Finland: Implications for the Nuna supercontinent. Precambrian Research 288, 1-22.

Smart, K. A., Cartigny, P., Tappe, S., O’Brien, H., Klemme, S. (2017). Lithospheric diamond formation as a consequence of methane-rich volatile flooding: An example from diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths of the Karelian craton (Finland). Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 206, 312-342.

Tirronen, T., Sukhomlinov, D., O’Brien, H., Taskinen, Lundström, M. (2017). Distributions of lithium-ion and nickel-metal hydride battery elements in copper converting. Journal of Cleaner Production 168, 399-409.

Wanhainen, C., Palsson, B.I., Martinsson, O., Lahaye, Y. (2017). Rare earth mineralogy in tailings from Kiirunavaara iron ore, northern Sweden: Implications for mineral processing. Minerals & Metallurgical Processing 34, 189-200.

Wong, K.-H., Zhou, M.-F., Chen, W.T., O’Brien, H., Lahaye, Y., Chan, S.-L.J. (2017). Constraints of fluid inclusions and in-situ S-Pb isotopic compositions on the origin of the North Kostobe sediment-hosted gold deposit, eastern Kazakhstan. Ore Geology Reviews 81, 256-269.

Xu, C., L. Zhang, H. Shi, M. R. Brix, H. Huhma, L. Chen, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhou (2017) Tracing an Early Jurassic magmatic arc from South to East China Seas, Tectonics, 36, 466-492,

Yang, S., Yang, G., Qu, W., Du, A., Hanski, E., Lahaye, Y., Chen, J. (2017). Pt-Os isotopic constraints on the age of hydrothermal overprinting on the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, China. Mineralium Deposita.


Avarmaa, K., O’Brien, H., Taskinen, P. (2016). Equilibria of Gold and Silver between Molten Copper and FeOx-SiO2-Al2O3 Slag in WEEE Smelting at 1300 °C. In: Advances in Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, pp.193-202.

Klein, R., L.J. Pesonen, L.J., Mänttäri, I. and Heinonen, J.S. (2016). A late Paleoproterozoic key pole for the Fennoscandian Shield: A paleomagnetic study of the Keuruu diabase dykes, Central Finland. Precambrian Research 286, 379–397.

Kotilainen, A.K., Mänttäri, I., Kurhila, M., Hölttä, P., Rämö, O.T. (2016). Evolution of a Palaeoproterozoic giant magmatic dome in the Finnish Svecofennian; New insights from U–Pb geochronology.  Precambrian Res. 272, 39−56.

Nironen M., Mänttäri I. and Väisänen M. (2016). The Salittu Formation in southwestern Finland, part I: Structure, age and stratigraphy. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, Vol. 88, pp 85–103,

Maier WD, Smithies RH, Spaggiari CV, Barnes SJ, Kirkland CL, Yang SH, Lahaye Y (2016). Petrogenesis and Ni-Cu sulphide potential of mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Fraser Zone within the Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia. Precambrian Research, 281, 27–46.

Heilimo, E., Mikkola, P., Huhma, H. & Halla, J. (2016). Alkaline rich quartz syenite intrusions of the western Karelia subprovince: implications of Neoarchaean cratonization processes. In: Halla, J., Whitehouse, M.J., Ahmad, T. & Bagai, Z. (eds.) Crust-Mantle Interactions and Granitoid Diversification: Insights from Archaean Cratons. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 449.

Lahtinen, R., H. Huhma, Y. Lahaye, S. Lode, S. Heinonen, M. Sayab, and M.J. Whitehouse (2016). Paleoproterozoic magmatism across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary in central Fennoscandia: Geochronology, geochemistry and isotopic data (Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, O). Lithos 262: 507-525.

Lehtonen E., Heilimo E., Halkoaho T., Hölttä, P. & Huhma, H. (2016). The temporal variation of Mesoarchaean volcanism in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt, Karelia Province, Eastern Finland. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) doi:10.1007/s00531-016-1327-y.

Lehtonen E., Heilimo E., Halkoaho T., Käpyaho A., Hölttä P. (2016). U-Pb geochronology of Archaean volcanic-sedimentary sequences in the Kuhmo greenstone belt, Karelia Province – multiphase volcanism from Meso- to Neoarchaean and an Archaean depositional basin? Precambrian Research 275: 48-69.

Li, Z.-K., J.-W. Li, D.R. Cooke, L. Danyushevsky, L. Zhang, H. O’Brien, Y. Lahaye, W. Zhang, and H.-J. Xu (2016). Textures, trace elements, and Pb isotopes of sulfides from the Haopinggou vein deposit, southern North China Craton: implications for discrete Au and Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 171: 99.

Ranta, J.-P., E. Hanski, N. Cook, and Y. Lahaye (2016). Source of boron in the Palokas gold deposit, northern Finland: evidence from boron isotopes and major element composition of tourmaline. Mineralium Deposita DOI 10.1007/s00126-016-0700-x: 1-14.

Wong, K.-H., M.-F. Zhou, W.T. Chen, H. O’Brien, Y. Lahaye, and S.-L.J. Chan (2016). Constraints of fluid inclusions and in-situ S-Pb isotopic compositions on the origin of the North Kostobe sediment-hosted gold deposit, eastern Kazakhstan. Ore Geology Reviews 81, Part 1: 256-269.

Woodard, J., P. Tuisku, A. Kärki, Y. Lahaye, J. Majka, H. Huhma, and M.J. Whitehouse (2016). Zircon and monazite geochronology of deformation in the Pielavesi Shear Zone, Finland: multistage evolution of the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary in the Fennoscandian Shield. Journal of the Geological Society. doi:10.1144/jgs2016-020

Molnár, F., O’Brien, H., Lahaye, Y., Käpyaho, A., Sorjonen-Ward, P., Hyodo, H., Sakellaris, G. (2016) Signatures of Multiple Mineralization Processes in the Archean Orogenic Gold Deposit of the Pampalo Mine, Hattu Schist Belt, Eastern Finland. DOI: 10.2113/econgeo.111.7.1659

Yang, S.-H., E. Hanski, C. Li, W.D. Maier, H. Huhma, A.V. Mokrushin, R. Latypov, Y. Lahaye, H. O’Brien, and W.-J. Qu, 2016. Mantle source of the 2.44-2.50-Ga mantle plume-related magmatism in the Fennoscandian Shield: evidence from Os, Nd, and Sr isotope compositions of the Monchepluton and Kemi intrusions. Mineralium Deposita: 1-19.

Molnár, F., Oduro, H., Cook, N. D. J., Pohjolainen, E., Takács, A., O’Brien, H., Pakkanen, L., Johanson B. & Wirth, R. (2016). Association of gold with uraninite and pyrobitumen in the metavolcanic rock hosted hydrothermal Au-U mineralisation at Rompas, Peräpohja Schist Belt, northern Finland. Mineralium Deposita,1-22.

Molnár, F., Mänttäri, I., O’Brien, H., Lahaye, Y., Pakkanen, L., Johanson, B., Käpyaho, A., Sorjonen-Ward, P., Whitehouse, M. & Sakellaris, G. (2016). Boron, sulphur and copper isotope systematics in the orogenic gold deposits of the Archaean Hattu schist belt, eastern Finland. Ore Geology Reviews 77, 133–162.

Saalmann, K., Mänttäri, I., Nyakecho, C. & Isabirye, E. (2016). Age, tectonic evolution and origin of the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda: Activation of an oblique ramp during convergence in the East African Orogen. Journal of African Earth Sciences 117, 303−330.

Shang, Y., Beets, C. J., Tang, H., Prins, M. A., Lahaye, Y., van Elsas, R., Sukselainen, L. & Kaakinen, A. (2016). Variations in the provenance of the late Neogene Red Clay deposits in northern China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 439, 88-100.


Maier WD, Määttä S, Yang SH, Oberthür T, Lahaye Y, Huhma H, Barnes SJ (2015). Composition of the ultramafic-mafic contact interval of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe at Ngezi mine: Comparisons to the Bushveld Complex and implications for the origin of the PGE reefs. Lithos, 238, 207–222.

Avarmaa, Katri, O’Brien, Hugh, Johto, Hannu & Taskinen, Pekka (2015). Equilibrium Distribution of Precious Metals Between Slag and Copper Matte at 1250–1350 °C. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy 1, 216-228.

Lahtinen R., Huhma H, Lahaye Y., Jonsson E., Manninen T., Lauri L., Bergman S., Hellström F., Niiranen T. and Nironen M. (2015). New geochronological and Sm-Nd constraints across the Pajala shear zone of northern Fennoscandia: reactivation of a Paleoproterozoic suture. Precambrian Research 256, 10-119.

Lahtinen R., Huhma H, Lahaye Y., Kousa J. and Luukas J. (2015). Archean-Proterozoic collision boundary in central Fennoscandia: Revisited. Precambrian Research 261, 127-165.

Lehtonen, M., Lahaye, Y., O’Brien, H., Lukkari, S., Marmo, J., Sarala, P. (2015). Novel technologies for indicator mineral-based exploration. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 57, 23−62.

Maier, W. D., Howard, H. M., Smithies, R. H., Yang, S. H., Barnes, S.-J., O’Brien, H., Huhma, H., Gardoll, S. (2015). Magmatic ore deposits in mafic–ultramafic intrusions of the Giles Event, Western Australia. Ore Geology Reviews 71, 405-436.

Maier, W. D., Rasmussen, B., Fletcher, I., Godel, B., Barnes, S. J., Fisher, L., Yang, S. H., Huhma, H. & Lahaye, Y. (2015). Petrogenesis of the 2.765-2.775 Ga Monts de Cristal 1 Complex, Gabon: evidence for direct precipitation of Pt-rich phases from basaltic magma. Journal of Petrology 56, 1285-1308.

Ranta, J.-P., Hanski, E., Lauri, L., Huhma, H. & Lahaye, Y. (2015). U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on the evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland. Precambrian Research 266, 246-259.


Mikkola, P., Heilimo, E., Huhma, H. (2014). Relationships between sanukitoids and crust-derived melts and their implications for the diversity of Neoarchaean granitoids: a case study from Surmansuo and nearby areas, Eastern Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, Vol. 86, 2014, pp 23–40.

Mänttäri, I. (2014). Mesoarchaean Mesoarchaean to Neoproterozoic crustal evolution of Uganda: evidence from new U−Pb and Sm−Nd rock ages. In: Lehto, T. & Katto, E. (eds) GTK Consortium Geological Surveys in Uganda 2008−2012. Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources Project. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 56, 121−164.

Nevalainen, J., Väisänen, M., Lahaye, Y., Heilimo, E. & Fröjdö, S. (2014). Svecofennian intra-orogenic gabbroic magmatism: a case study from Turku, southwestern Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 86 (2), 93–112.

Rämö, O. T., Turkki, V., Mänttäri, I., Heinonen, A., Larjamo, K. & Lahaye, Y. (2014). Age and isotopic fingerprints of some plutonic rocks in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith with special reference to the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 86 (2), 71-91.

Suikkanen, E., Huhma, H., Kurhila, M. & Lahaye, Y. (2014). The age and origin of the Vaasa migmatite complex revisited. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 86 (1), 41-55.

Weisenberger, T. B., Spürgin, S. & Lahaye, Y. (2014). Hydrothermal alteration and zeolitization of the Fohberg phonolite, Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex, Germany. International Journal of Earth Sciences 103 (8), 2273-2300. (DOI 10.1007/s00531-014-1046-1)

2013 and older

Lahtinen, R., Huhma, H., Lahaye, Y., Kontinen, A., Kohonen, J. & Johanson, B. (2013). Long-lived LREE mobility in the cratonic, rift and foredeep to foreland sedimentary cover at the western margin of the Karelia Province. Lithos 175-176, 86-103.

Yang, S. H., Maier, W. D., Lahaye, Y. & O’Brien, H. (2013). Strontium isotope disequilibrium of plagioclase in the Upper Critical Zone of the Bushveld Complex: evidence for mixing of crystal slurries. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 166, 959-974.

Huhma, H., Mänttäri, I., Peltonen, P., Kontinen, A., Halkoaho, T., Hanski, E., Hokkanen,T., Hölttä, P., Juopperi, H., Konnunaho, J., Lahaye, Y., Luukkonen, E., Pietikäinen, K., Pulkkinen, A., Sorjonen-Ward, P., Vaasjoki, M. & Whitehouse, M. (2012). The age of the Archaean Greenstone Belts in Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 54, 74-175.

Väisänen, M., Eklund, O., Lahaye, Y.; O’Brien, H., Fröjdö, S., Högdahl, K. & Lammi, M. (2012). Intra-orogenic Svecofennian magmatism in SW Finland constrained by LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon dating and geochemistry. GFF 134 (2), 99-114.

Rutanen, H., Andersson, U. B., Väisänen, M., Johansson, Å., Fröjdö, S., Lahaye, Y. & Eklund, O. (2011). 1.8 Ga magmatism in southern Finland: strongly enriched mantle and juvenile crustal sources in a post-collisional setting. International Geology Review 53 (14), 1622-1683.

Mikkola, P., Kontinen, A., Huhma, H. & Lahaye, Y. (2010). Three Paleoproterozoic A-type granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, East Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 82, 81-100.